The development of production embodies the development of technology, leading in the field of technology, the competitiveness of production can have more advantages. At present, innovation and development, China's valve technology are trying to improve production technology, equipment development to large-scale, automated development.
With the development of large-scale complete sets of foreign technology, a series of new complete sets of equipment and single machines have appeared. Valve-related developments of new complete sets of equipment is characterized by large-scale, high parameterization, high-performance automation and complete sets.
Refinery Equipment: The largest refinery is 36.4 million t / yr (Caribbean Virgin Islands) and 30 million t / yr (Venezuela). At present, there are nearly 30 refineries with annual output of 20 million t / y.
The processing capacity of the largest unit refining unit: 24 million t / a of atmospheric and vacuum units, 8,240,000 t / a of catalytic cracking units, 5.69 million t / a of reformer units, and 3.2 million t / a of hydrocracking units.
Oil and Gas Long-distance Pipeline Equipment: In recent years, long-distance pipelines have developed rapidly. One of the main reasons is low cost, equivalent to only one-third of the railway transport; the second is buried in the ground, not easy to destroy; Third, pipeline construction speed, investment in the province.
The longest pipeline 4830Km (Iran) and 4665Km (the former Soviet Union, Friendship Line). The longest delivery oil pipeline 4578km (Houston, New York, USA).
The longest gas pipeline is 7680km (from Alaska via Canada to the western United States).
The largest pipeline diameter of 1620 and the proposed 2500.
The highest pipeline transportation pressure is 9 ~ 12MPa.
Ammonia equipment: the largest 540,000 t / year and 500,000 t / year.
Ethylene equipment: the maximum capacity of 500,000 t / year to 800,000 t / year.
Power generation equipment, the largest unit capacity: biaxial thermal power unit l30 million kW (made in the United States, Switzerland), uniaxial thermal power plant 1.2 million kw (former Soviet Union), the largest nuclear power plant 1.3 million kW (Germany)
The maximum diameter and maximum pressure of the valve matched with these complete sets of equipment are as follows: The maximum diameter of the flat gate valve is 1620mm, 2000 and 3050roll (USA and Japan); the largest butterfly valve is 9750mm (designed by Bauman company in the UK) 3050mm, not counting the weight of the drive 184t (Made in Switzerland, Tennessee, USA): Maximum water gate valve diameter 2750mm, 9MPa (Japan).
Large-scale economic effects of equipment: To sum up, one is to increase production efficiency, the other is to reduce capital investment, the third is to reduce the consumption of raw materials.
With an annual processing capacity of 5 million t of refinery equipment, compared with 1 million t, the investment in production capacity per t product is reduced by 50%.
A 6 million tpa refinery compared to two 3 million tpd refinery only invested 69% of the latter, with steel consumption of 53%, floor space of 54% and production costs of 75% The labor productivity has risen to l70%.
The annual output of 200,000 tons of synthetic ammonia equipment, power consumption per tonne 1450kW. h, the newly built power plant with an annual output of 460,000 tons of equipment dropped to 50kw / h. Only equivalent to 200,000 t-class equipment, power consumption of 1/29.
Compared with 200,000 units, the unit cost of 600,000 kW units will be reduced by 10% -20%. The construction cost, unit power, steel consumption and manufacturing man-hours will be reduced by 20%.
Complete set of equipment automation level, foreign petrochemical industry. The main production process has been achieved direct digital control, and some also achieved a computer grading control. Synthetic ammonia, urea, synthetic fibers, synthetic rubber and synthetic plastics and other chemical companies to achieve universal tour detection, alarm, and some realize closed-loop control and local optimization control. More than 200,000 kW large generating units generally to the development of computer control. Nuclear power plants are generally computer controlled. Long-distance pipeline system Many countries use computer control, and equipped with microwave communication system, the total control room only 2 --- 3 duty staff. You can monitor the full range of TV work.
The above control methods of complete sets of equipment also require the valve to be compatible. Therefore, the past 20 years, the control of foreign valves also have great development. In addition to the general manual, motorized, electric, pneumatic, hydraulic transmission, the electro-hydraulic interlocking, gas-liquid continuous, automatic control valve varieties continue to increase, and further development trend.
Series varieties level
With various types of complete sets of equipment, process and performance improvement, the series of foreign valves are still increasing, in recent years there have been many new varieties of valves. Such as: emergency shut-off valve, fast switching valve, fire damper, anti-static valve, temperature reducing valve, butterfly check valve, pressure relief valve, vacuum jacket valve, water cooling or air-cooled valve, safety gate valve, safety valve And many other new valves, including universal valve ball valve, butterfly valve and flat gate valve is the fastest growing valve varieties in 20 years. At present, the highest foreign valve basic technical parameters see the table.
Valve product quality level
A. Sealing reliability. According to foreign countries, the use of sealing products and the choice of products, and the classification of the degree of sealing, generally divided into three levels. One, two for the sealing of the high places, three for the general low-pressure industrial valves. Although the leakage values vary, but there are leakage provisions. Foreign valve leakage has a standard.
B. Valve a switch time. Some valves require a short period of time to open or close. The length of a switch marks the pros and cons of valve performance. Some American valves once the switch time has reached the level of milliseconds. Such as the AMES Research Center to open a six-inch 300-pound class gate valve only 1ms, medium-sized DN350 ~ 400 fast switching valve is only 0.6s, the switch ball valve time to 0.05 ~ O.1s, Japan Okano Valve Co., Ltd. produced ultrasound
Speed valve, a time to open 1s, the media is air, DN40, PNl4MPa, working temperature is 1267 ℃, the media flow rate of 11 times the speed of sound, 3640m / s.
Manufacturing process level
Casting: Foreign castings for the cupola plus electric furnace double, cast steel for the electric furnace plus refining. The liquid metal is of high quality and stable chemical composition. The shape is resin sand. The automatic film or mechanical form of tide film (about 50% mechanized shape) is mostly controlled by computer. The equipment is advanced, the precision of casting size is high, the surface is smooth and the sand cleaning method is better.
Forging: the majority of foreign use of forging, and has used multi-die forging and closed forging. Forgings of high quality, material utilization up to 95%. The maximum forging diameter up to DN500.
Heat Treatment: Most foreign heat treatment has been used to control heat treatment. Such as Japan controllable processing accounts for about 70% 80%, and some use of vacuum heat treatment. Nitride also used ion nitriding, soft nitriding, chemical treatment and other new technology.
Bypass differential pressure control valve is used for air conditioning system to supply / return between the pressure to balance the valve. The valve increases system utilization, maintains accurate, direct pressure drops, and minimizes system noise and equipment damage caused by excessive pressure drops. Bypass differential pressure control valve is superior to other balancing valves in that it has no actuator, the pressure of the complete medium itself to balance the function of the system to save energy and installation space, is an intelligent valve.
Bypass pressure control valve for fuel gas heat source for the return pipe. Central air-conditioning points, between the catchment, as a measure of flow. Secondary side variable flow system by-pass installation. Can effectively protect the fuel gas unit will not solid flow caused by the temperature is too high and damaged, but also can effectively protect the chiller due to flow is too small and caused by local freezing damage.
Bypass pressure control valve for large height difference and the heat source in the high district central heating system, the use of height differential valve to set the pressure difference, and in the low zone back to the right place to install the decompression pump only cause Valve, regulating valve composed of water due to decompression device, through the control valve to adjust and set the return pipe pressure, so as to ensure that high-area users will not empty phenomenon, but also to protect the low area equipment will not be over-pressured Damage.